This theme area focuses on the utilisation of energy and waste in an environmentally and resource-efficient manner. This is achieved by analysing the value chain of production and use of various energy products, for example electricity and heat based on different energy sources such as biofuels and fossil-based energy products. Value chains for the treatment and recycling of various waste resources are analysed in similar fashion. The results are used both for the documentation of the most environmental- and resource-efficient solutions, also the design of measures to promote environmentally sound waste management. This theme area encompasses both commissioned studies and research projects at national, Nordic and international level.